Monthly Archives: September 2018

White Mountain Motorsports Park fete set for Sat., Nov. 3


The 2018 racing season has ended and the final touches for the 2018 Banquet of Champions
have been put together. The Avery family is pleased to announce that the banquet will be held on
Saturday, November 3rd at the Days Inn Wyndham in Lincoln, New Hampshire.
The event schedule looks like this: Cocktails and beverages will be served from 4-6pm, followed by dinner from 6pm-7:30pm. Awards will be presented immediately following dinner, and entertainment will wrap up the evening.
The cost of tickets is $45 per ticket and must be purchased by October 26, 2018.To order tickets by phone, call Teri Avery at 603-348-7374, or download the ticket order form below and mail to
WMMP, P.O. Box 575, North Woodstock, New Hampshire 03262.
Only cash, checks or money orders will be accepted.

Bear Ridge Speedway Awards Banquet set for Saturday, Dec. 1

2018 Annual Awards Banquet

2018 Annual Awards Banquet

Saturday, December 1, 2018
Adult GA Ticket: 
Students 12-17 GA Ticket: 
Seniors 62+ GA Ticket: 
Kids 11 & Under GA Ticket: 

Pit Gates Open: 
Gates Open: 
Racing Starts: 
Fireside Inn W. Lebanon NH

Happy hour 4:30 to 5:30 dinner 6:00
7:30 awards ceremony

Limited Seating available

Contact April May at 603/304-6722 for tickets.
Pay by October 20th at $50.00 per person
After October 22nd thru November 10th $65.00 per person
You must make reservations by November 10th
If you have not paid for your tickets by November 10th
you will NOT BE ABLE TO ATTEND the 2018 Banquet.

There will be no room for walk-ins as we must PREPAY for all meals served.

Source: Bear Ridge Speedway Bradford, VT

Matt Hirschman takes Race of Champions 250 at Lake Erie Speedway

9/29/2018 at Lake Erie Speedway – North East, PA

Asphalt Modifieds, Asphalt Late Model, Asphalt 4-Cylinders

Asphalt Modifieds

Race of Champions 250

250 laps | 01:42:38.774

Pos Start Driver Hometown Car
1 2 Matt Hirschman Northampton, PA 60
2 1 Chuck Hossfeld Ransomville, NY 22
3 7 Austin Kochenash Danielsville, PA 66
4 6 Jimmy Zacharias Candor, NY 71
5 9 Jack Ely Wall, NJ 54E
6 4 Patrick Emerling Orchard Park, NY 07
7 3 Eric Beers North Hampton, PA 45B
8 12 Scott Wylie Blasdell , NY 88
9 13 Mike Leaty Williamson, NY 25
10 15 Daren Scherer Binghamton, NY 3

Fearn, Bessette, Dion and DeSanctis score NAPA Fall Final Saturday feature victories at Stafford Speedway



(Stafford Springs, CT)—Stafford Motor Speedway kicked off its final race event of the 2018 season with feature events for its Limited Late Model, and Street Stock divisions, as well as a feature event for the Vintage All-Stars and the special Ladies Challenge feature that raised over $35,000 for various charities as part of the Saturday NAPA Auto Parts Fall Final Weekend festivities.  Taking feature wins were Ryan Fearn in the Limited Late Model feature, George Bessette, Jr. in the Street Stock feature, Scott Dion in the Vintage All-Stars feature, and Debbie DeSanctis in the Ladies Challenge feature.

In the 20-lap Limited Late Model feature, Justin Bren took the early lead with Robert Bloxsom, III right behind him but the caution came out with 2 laps complete for debris on the frontstretch.

Back under green Bren took the lead with Ryan Fearn moving into second.  Bloxsom dropped back to third in line with Jeremy Lavoie in fourth and Alexandra Fearn in fifth.  Ryan Fearn took the lead from Bren on lap-5.  Just as Fearn took the lead, Bren tried a crossover move in turn 2 and made slight contact with Fearn, but Fearn was able to maintain control of his car and stayed in the lead.

Lavoie was applying heavy pressure to Bloxsom for third but Bloxsom was able to hold off his challenge.  Lavoie was able  to make the move for third on lap-15 and he brought Alexandra Fearn with him into fourth as Bloxsom dropped back to fifth with Ryan Fearn still leading Bren at the front of the pack.

Fearn led Bren to the checkered flag to pick up his sixth win of the 2018 season.  Bren finished second with Lavoie, Alexandra Fearn, and Bloxsom rounding out the top-5.

In the 20-lap Street Stock feature, Samantha Anderson took the early lead at the drop of the green flag with Chuck Harrison second.  Jason Lafayette was third with Nicole Chambrello quickly moving up to fourth and Johnny Walker following right behind her in fifth.  Right behind Walker was Tess Beyer in sixth and George Bessette, Jr. in seventh.

Beyer got by Walker to move into fifth on lap-8 while Lafayette got around Harrison to move into second as Anderson continued to hold the race lead.  Harrison slid back to seventh in line as the order was now Anderson, Lafayette, Chambrello, Beyer, Walker, Bessette and Harrison with 10 laps complete.

Chambrello’s car dropped off the pace and she limped back to pit road on lap-13 while Lafayette took the lead from Anderson.  Beyer followed in Lafayette’s tire tracks to move into second with Walker fourth and Bessette fifth.

Beyer got around Lafayette to take the lead on lap-17 and the caution came out with 19 laps complete for a spin in the middle of turns 3+4 by William DesJardins to set up a green white checkered finish.

Beyer took the lead on the restart with Bessette nearly making a move for the lead.  The two cars raced side by side into turns 3+4 and as they headed towards the white flag, Beyer spun and collected the car of Lafayette.  The race stayed green and Bessette led the field to the checkered flag to pick up his fifth win of the 2018 season and put an exclamation point on his championship winning season.  Mike Hopkins finished second with Meg Fuller edging out Travis Hydar by a nose for fourth place and Walker rounded out the top-5.

In the 15-lap Vintage All-Stars feature, Scott Dion took the lead at the green with Gregg Massini in second and Jeff Hummel in third.  Jocelyn Laliberte was fourth and Glenn Gagner was fifth in the early stages.  Gagner spun on the frontstretch to bring the caution out with 4 laps complete.

Dion took the lead on the restart with Hummel taking second.  Massini was third with Laliberte fourth and Gagner in fifth.  Hummel couldn’t get close enough to Dion to make a bid for the lead as Dion wired the field for the win.  Hummel finished second with Massini third, Laliberte fourth and Gagner fifth.

In the 8-lap Ladies Challenge feature event, Debbie DeSanctis took the lead from Nicole LaRose on the opening lap with Lianna Berndt slotting into third.  Berndt made a power move to the inside of LaRose on lap-4 but couldn’t complete the pass with DeSanctis still out front.  Maina Rufrano was fourth with Gail McClain in fifth.  Berndt spun on the backstretch to bring the caution out with 5 laps complete.

DeSanctis took the lead on the restart with LaRose in second.  Rufrano was third in line with McClain up to fourth and Cassie Rocco in fifth.  DeSanctis led LaRose to the checkered flag to score the win.  Rufrano finished third with McClain fourth and Rocco fifth.


1) Ryan Fearn, East Longmeadow, Ma

2) Justin Bren, Palmer, Ma

3) Jeremy Lavoie, Windsor Locks

4) Alexandra Fearn, East Longmeadow, Ma

5) Robert Bloxsom, III, Stratford

6) Matt Clement, Wethersfield

7) R.J. Surdell, Willington

8) Duane Provost, Palmer, Ma

9) David Tefft, Southampton, Ma

10) Gary Patnode, Barkhamsted

11) Steven Martel, Barkhamsted

12) Dan Gorman, Watertown

13) Andy Marchese, Tolland


1) George Bessette, Jr., Danbury

2) Mike Hopkins, Springfield, Ma

3) Meghan Fuller, Auburn, Ma

4) Travis Hydar, Woodbury

5) Johnny Walker, Ludlow, Ma

6) Samantha Anderson, Wolcott

7) Chuck Harrison, Woodstock Valley

8) Richard Ciriello, Reading, Ma

9) David Macha, Sr., Columbia

10) Chris Danielczuk, Goshen

11) Chris Bagnall, Winsted

12) Nick Bendiak, Hopkinton, Ma

13) Rob Sears, Stafford Springs

14) Armand Cote, Jr., Rocky Hill

15) Jason Lafayette, Somers

16) Tess Beyer, Stratton, Vt

17) Steve Kenneway, Lowell, Ma

18) William DesJardins, Plainville

19) Nicole Chambrello, Kensington

20) Chris Ciriello, Watertown

21) Steven Cote, Rocky Hill


1) Scott Dion

2) Jeff Hummel

3) Greg Massini

4) Jocelyn Laliberte

5) Glenn Gagner

6) Curt Snow

7) Art Merchant

8) Stephan Laliberte


1) Debbie DeSanctis

2) Nicole LaRose

3) Maina Rufrano

4) Gail McClain

5) Cassie Rocco

6) Mary Ann Gambacorta

7) Lianna Berndt

8) Shannon DiCostanzo

9) Megan Surdell

10) Courtney Bergeron-Spacht

11) Amber Larsen

12) Tiffany Spinnato

Source: Scott Running/Stafford Speedway PR

Wiscasset Speedway Results 9/29/18


* Kurt Hewins was also 2016 Shootout winner
Pos No. Name Home Town State Laps Diff
1 55 Kurt Hewins Leeds ME 50
2 24 Jonathon Emerson Sabattus ME 50 0.348
3 03 Maurice Young Chelsea ME 50 1.254
4 36X Nate Leavitt Sabattus ME 50 2.195
5 03x Jim Davis Sabattus ME 50 2.797


* Reno 3rd win on 2018
* Chadbourne wins 2018 championship
Pos No. Name Home Town State Laps Diff
1 77 Nick Reno West Bath ME 30
2 12 Wayne Whitten Jr. Kennebunk ME 30 3.085
3 09 Michael Brown Hope ME 30 5.642
4 04 Allan Moeller Dresden ME 30 8.841
5 15A Wayne Allard Stetson ME 30 12.305


* Roy first win of 2018
Pos No. Name Home Town State Laps Diff
1 26 Brent Roy Vassalboro ME 25
2 27 Jake Hensbee Whitefield ME 25 0.325
3 99 Scott Trask Richmond ME 25 5.717
4 2 Rob Greenleaf West Bath ME 25 6.044
5 19 Zach Audet Skowhegan ME 25 6.090


* Ripley first Late Model win (defending Prostock champion)
* McLaughlin wins 2018 championship
Pos No. Name Home Town State Laps Diff
1 09 Daren Ripley Thomaston ME 40
2 25 Will Collins Waldoboro ME 40 0.229
3 26 Andrew McLaughlin Harrington ME 40 0.424
4 33 Josh St. Clair Liberty ME 40 1.787
5 15M Frank Moulton Clinton ME 40 3.845




Source: Ken Minott

Wiscasset Speedway
Promoter / Announcer / Sales
Note: If your track, tour or event is not posted on this blog send your press releases and flyers to:

RISRA October Show


This is the divider

Hello Fellow Automotive Enthusiasts,


Join us as Rhode Island Street Rodding Association will hold RISRA & USMC ​43rd Annual “Toys for Tots” on October 7, 2018 (rain date Oct 8) at the  Johnston War Memorial Park, 1583 Hartford Ave., Route 6, Johnston, RI. Registration Fee ; 1 new unwrapped toy, “Food for the Needy”, (2 cans of food).​​ Registration time starts at 9:00 am. Early bird coffee and doughnuts will be available, donations are appreciated. Each registrant and guest receives a voucher for a free lunch. New this year is an extra special treat that has been added to our regular bill of fare.  Our well established silent auction tables tradition will be at hand and feature a wide variety of items for your bidding enjoyment.  Our coveted hand built trophies will be awarded to aptly qualified vehicles apropos to each category.  DJ Boom will be there for your listening pleasure.  Just a reminder that the true results of this show are not known to us, but are shown on Christmas morning in the eyes of an underprivileged child.  Do you remember Tiny Tim’s quote on Christmas Day? “God bless us, every one!” Well let’s make this a great Christmas for some needy kids! For further information call Joe at 401-499-9877 or visit ​ .


RISRA will have their next Monthly Meeting, Oct  5, 2018, 7:30 PM, at Shriners , 1 Rhodes Pl, Cranston, RI.  We are always actively seeking new members, if you have an interest in street rodding and would like further information either email us or attend a meeting. Thank you, Webmaster

Nick Sweet prevails in Pro All Stars Series Super Late Model thriller at Thunder Road


 Nick Sweet wins another one at Thunder Road.  This time it was in q PASS Super Late Model! (Credit:Thunder Road photo.)


Barre, Vermont – Hometown stock car racer Nick Sweet nailed down his first Super Late Model race win on Friday night, holding off Quebec competitor and fellow former Milk Bowl winner Patrick Laperle in an outstanding 150-lap Pro All Stars Series Super Late Model main event, highlighting Northfield Savings Bank Night Before The Milk Bowl action at Thunder Road International Speedbowl in Barre, Vermont. Continue reading

Home track Advantage is “Sweet” in Milk Bowl Friday thriller


 Barre’s Nick Sweet celebrates his Pro All Stars Series win at Northfield Savings Bank Milk Bowl Friday on September 28. (Alan Ward photo)

 Waterville, ME’s Cody Leblanc grabbed the North East Mini Stock Tour event. (Alan Ward photo)

 Leeds, ME’s Billy Childs Jr. was the victor in the V8 Street Stock Showdown Series. (Alan Ward photo)

 Graniteville’s Frank Putney (#88) inherited his third Burnett Scrap Metals Road Warrior win of the year. (Alan Ward photo)

Barre, VT – Hometown racer Nick Sweet came out on top of a late-race battle with St-Denis, QC’s Patrick Laperle to take the Pro All Stars Series (PASS) 150 at the inaugural Northfield Savings Bank Milk Bowl Friday on September 28. The two former Milk Bowl winners went door-to-door for nearly 20 breathtaking laps to kick off the 56th Vermont Milk Bowl Weekend. But it was Sweet who prevailed to take his first Super Late Model win at his home track.

Sweet first grabbed the top spot on lap 36 of the 150-lap main event when he swung to the outside of Tamworth, NH’s Jeremy Davis. The 2-time “King of the Road” kept hold of the top spot until he came under fire from PASS point leader D.J. Shaw of Center Conway, NH.

Shaw’s first attempt to get underneath Sweet was thwarted by the event’s third caution on lap 100 when Joey Polewarczyk Jr., Gabe Brown, and Glen Luce tangled off turn 4. The former PASS North Champion made it stick six laps later, only to see Laperle enter the fray and grab the lead away on a lap-115 restart.

Shaw didn’t give up, though, and swiped the lead back just as the sixth caution came for a 5-car fracas on the front stretch. After the two went back-and-forth on the restart, Sweet suddenly re-entered the fight, aggressively getting underneath Shaw entering turn 3 on lap 123 for the top spot.

One final caution on lap 127 for Davis’s spin in turn 2 set up the run to the finish. Laperle went under Shaw for second on the restart and got underneath Sweet on lap 132. But Sweet was able to use the momentum on the high side to keep the nose in front even as the two swapped paint. Coming to the white flag, Sweet was able to use the lapped car of Calvin Rose Jr. as a pick, sealing an emotional victory.

Laperle finished second with Shaw taking third to pad his PASS North point lead. Hinesburg’s Bobby Therrien recovered from a mid-race spin to come in fourth. Derek Griffith, Derek Ramstrom, Garrett Hall, Davis, Travis Benjamin, and Brown finished fifth through 10th.

Waterville, ME’s Cody Leblanc took advantage of a pair of late-race cautions to snare the win in the North East Mini Stock Tour feature. The series point leader started 12th on the grid in the 50-lap event and steadily worked his way up to second. However, by this time, he sat more than half a lap behind polesitter Kodi Sabins of Windsor, VT with the race beginning to wind down.

But a lap-33 caution for a front stretch incident involving Emerson Cayer, Joe Katula, and Dana Shepard allowed Leblanc to catch up to Sabins. Leblanc ducked inside of Sabins and had the lead by a bumper on lap 38 only to see the second caution for Michael Vien’s spin negate the pass. On the restart, though, Leblanc got the jump, and he held off Sabins over the final 12 laps for the victory.

Sabins settled for second while Contoocook, NH’s Cayer recovered to finish third. Matt Boucher, Matthew Kimball, Julia Raymond, Desmond Skillings, Jacob Rheaume, Pat Houle, and Justin Fafond rounded out the top-10.

In the V8 Street Stock Showdown Series, Leeds, ME’s Billy Childs Jr. emerged as the victor. Childs quickly came from the fourth starting spot in the 50-lap feature to move around the outside of reigning Lenny’s Shoe & Apparel Flying Tiger Champion Joel Hodgdon for the lead on lap 8.

Hodgdon hung with Childs for the rest of the event, and even ducked inside late in the going as the two diced through lapped traffic. But Childs was too strong and held serve following the second and final caution on lap 44 to take the win over Hodgdon.

Kyle Hewins, a fellow Leeds, ME resident with Childs, lucked into the third spot after Kyle Treadwell and Jason Woodard got together fighting for the position with four laps remaining. Treadwell ended up spinning off turn three while Woodard was penalized by series officials for his involvement.

Enfield, NH’s Joe Tetreault also benefitted from the incident as he ended up fourth. Woodard, Travis Cass, Lucas Wheeler, Travis Lovejoy, Joe Areana, and Corey Hutchings completed the top-10.

Three times was a charm for Graniteville’s Frank Putney as he inherited his third Burnett Scrap Metals Road Warrior win of the season. Putney came from 23rd on the grid to cross the finish line a distant third behind Waterford, ME’s Jamie Heath and St. Johnsbury’s Colby Bourgeois, who also bot came charging out of the back.

But Heath and Bourgeois subsequently flunked post-race technical inspection, handing the win over to Putney. Heath was disqualified for a front camber violation while Bourgeois failed due to a suspension violation.

Fred Fleury, another Graniteville resident, moved into the second spot on the podium. East Montpelier’s Brodie Frazier became the new third-place finisher. Kylar Davis, James Dopp, Haidyn Pearce, Josh Vilbrin, Ethan Howes, Andrew Casavant, and Eric Chase also earned top-10 finishes.

Vermont Milk Bowl Weekend continues on Saturday, September 29 at 1 pm with Booth Bros./H.P. Hood Milk Bowl Qualifying Day. The Maplewood/Irving Oil Late Models open the day with Time Trials followed by 50-lap qualifying races to set the first 22 positions on the Milk Bowl starting grid. The Lenny’s Shoe & Apparel Flying Tigers, Allen Lumber Street Stocks, and New England Dwarf cars join them with group Time Trials and Segment 1 of their Mini Milk Bowls. Racing will be followed by the Junior Champ Kart season finale and a performance from local band RumbleCaddy in the Turn 3 Pavilion.

Adult admission is $10 for Saturday-only or $30 for a 2-day Saturday/Sunday ticket. Kids 12 and under are admitted free. The pits open on Saturday at 7:30 am and the front gates open at 10 am.




Pos., Driver, Car #, Hometown

1. ( 40 ) Nick Sweet, Barre, VT

2. ( 91 ) Patrick Laperle, St-Denis, QC

3. ( 60 ) D.J. Shaw, Center Conway, NH

4. ( 5X ) Bobby Therrien, Hinesburg, VT

5. ( 12G ) Derek Griffith, Hudson, NH

6. ( 35 ) Derek Ramstrom, Worcester, MA

7. ( 94 ) Garrett Hall, Scarborough, ME

8. ( 09 ) Jeremy Davis, Tamworth, NH

9. ( 7 ) Travis Benjamin, Morrill, ME

10. ( 47 ) Gabe Brown, Center Conway, NH

11. ( 37VT ) Scott Payea, Milton, VT

12. ( 97NH ) Joey Polewarczyk Jr., Hudson, NH

13. ( 4N ) Ben Rowe, Turner, ME

14. ( 8 ) Calvin Rose Jr., Turner, ME

15. ( 24J ) J.P. Josaisse, Ennismore, ON

16. ( 24 ) Scott MacMichael, Newbury, NH

17. ( 27 ) Wayne Helliwell Jr., Dover, NH

18. ( 66VT ) Jason Corliss, Barre, VT

19. ( 42VT ) Matt White, Northfield, VT

20. ( 7L ) Glen Luce, Turner, ME

21. ( 1VT ) Evan Hallstrom, Northfield, VT

22. ( 4ME ) Brad Babb, Windham, ME

DNS ( 43 ) Devin O’Connell, Madison, CT


Pos., Driver, Car #, Hometown

1. ( 7NH ) Cody Leblanc, Waterville, ME

2. ( 36 ) Kodi Sabins, Windsor, VT

3. ( 88 ) Emerson Cayer, Contoocook, NH

4. ( 71 ) Matt Boucher, Andover, NH

5. ( 50 ) Matthew Kimball, Bennington, NH

6. ( 62 ) Julia Raymond, Winchester, NH

7. ( 90 ) Desmond Skillings, Antrim, NH

8. ( 18NH ) Jacob Rheaume, Rochester, NH

9. ( 57X ) Pat Houle, Vernon, VT

10. ( 04 ) Justin Fafond, Westminster, MA

11. ( 43 ) Dana Shepard, Putney, VT

12. ( 52NH ) Jeremy Carter, East Andover, NH

13. ( 85 ) Michael Viens, Seekonk, MA

14. ( 69 ) Louis Maher, North Brookfield, MA

15. ( 23 ) Devin Guy, Dublin, NH

16. ( 4K ) Joe Katula, Lisbon Falls, ME

17. ( 25NH ) Ben Belanger, Whitfield, NH

18. ( 48NH ) Christopher Jackman, Charlestown, NH

DNS ( 1 ) Corey Plummer, Keene, NH

DNS ( 33VT ) Matthew Sonnhalter, E. Thetford, VT

DNS ( 8 ) Jeffrey Martin, Barre, VT


Pos., Driver, Car #, Hometown

1. ( 1 ) Billy Childs Jr., Leeds, ME

2. ( 36VT ) Joel Hodgdon, Craftsbury Common, VT

3. ( 51 ) Kyle Hewins, Leeds, ME

4. ( 73 ) Joe Tetreault, Enfield, NH

5. ( 68 ) Jason Woodard, Waterbury Center, VT

6. ( 32 ) Travis Cass, Claremont, NH

7. ( 21 ) Lucas Wheeler, Bradford, VT

8. ( 711 ) Travis Lovejoy, Waterboro, ME

9. ( 74 ) Joe Arena, Bristol, CT

10. ( 36X ) Corey Hutchings, Salem, CT

11. ( 93 ) Dan Dembek, Hampden, MA

12. ( 44 ) Kyle Treadwell, Auburn, ME

13. ( 4X ) Burt Spooner, East Montpelier, VT

DNS ( 67 ) Michael Haynes, Livermore Falls, ME


Pos., Driver, Car #, Hometown

1. Frank Putney ( 88 ) Graniteville, VT

2. Fred Fleury ( 98 ) Graniteville, VT

3. Brodie Frazier ( 17 ) E. Montpelier, VT

4. Kylar Davis ( 68 ) Berlin, VT

5. James Dopp ( 0 ) Northfield, VT

6. Haidyn Pearce ( 4 ) Berlin, VT

7. Josh Vilbrin ( 77 ) Northfield, VT

8. Ethan Howes ( 24 ) Fayston, VT

9. Andrew Casavant ( 64 ) E. Hardwick, VT

10. Eric Chase ( 13 ) Berlin, VT

11. Sean McCarthy ( 86 ) Williamstown, VT

12. Taylor Keene ( 7 ) E. Hardwick, VT

13. Jacob Hall-Larson ( 42 ) Northfield, VT

14. Mike Mitchell ( 1 ) Essex, VT

15. Jesse Gerrow ( 01 ) Craftsbury Common, VT

16. Kyle MacAskill ( 07 ) Williamstown, VT

17. Chris Davis ( 69 ) Berlin, VT

18. Rodney Campbell ( 10 ) Worcester, VT

19. Mark Beaulieu ( 12 ) Essex, VT

20. Patrick Lacasse ( 96 ) Wolcott, VT

21. Todd Raymo ( 26 ) Swanton, VT

22. Davey Chase ( 11 ) 0

23. Robert Audet ( 66 ) Morrisville, VT

24. Brad Kelley ( 55 ) Barre, VT

25. Brandon Clark ( 06 ) Brookfield, VT

26. Nate Brien ( 16 ) Brookfield, VT

DSQ Jamie Heath ( 91 ) Waterford, ME

DSQ Doug Duff Jr. ( 92 ) Milton, VT

DNS Brian Putney ( 87 ) E. Corinth, VT

DNS Steve Tracy ( 43 ) Williamstown, VT

Source: Michael R. Stridsberg

Thunder Road Speedbowl
Media Director
Note: If your track,tour or event is not posted on this blog send your press releases and flyers to: